The anti-doping rules of national and international federations are adopted in accordance with the WADA Code.

Doping is defined as the occurrence of one or more rule violations set forth in the antidoping rules.

The following constitute anti-doping rule violations:

presence of a prohibited substance;

use or attempted use of a prohibited substance or a prohibited method;

evading, refusing or failing to submit to sample collection;

whereabouts failure;

tampering or attempted tampering with any part of doping control;

possession, trafficking or attempted trafficking of a prohibited substance or prohibited methods;


The standard of proof in doping proceedings relies on the principle of comfortable satisfaction, which is greater than a mere balance of probability but less than proof beyond a reasonable doubt.

The sanctions caused by an adverse analytical finding (“AAF”) shall reflect the athlete’s fault (from the intent to the lack of significant fault).